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Aluminum electrolytic capacitor detailed parameters and purchase skills
 

Aluminum electrolytic capacitor is made from aluminum cylindrical anode, and filled with liquid electrolyte, insert a piece of bent aluminum cathode. Also need to go through the DC voltage, so that the anode plate is formed on a layer of oxide film as a dielectric. It is characterized by large capacity, but leakage, poor stability, have positive and negative polarities, suitable for power supply filtering or low frequency circuits.

<P src="容量和額定工作電壓"" 容量和額定工作電壓 ">Capacity and rated working voltage <P src="鋁電解電容本體上標有的容量和耐壓,這兩個參數是很重要,是選用電容最基本的內容。"" 鋁電解電容本體上標有的容量和耐壓,這兩個參數是很重要,是選用電容最基本的內容。 ">Aluminum electrolytic capacitor body marked with the volume and pressure, these two parameters is very important, is the most basic content selection of capacitor. <P src="在實際電容選型中,對電流變化節奏快的地方要用容量較大的電容,但并非容量越大越好,首先,容量增大,成本和體積可能會上升,另外,電容越大充電電流就越大,充電時間也會越長。這些都是實際應用選型中要考慮的。"" 在實際電容選型中,對電流變化節奏快的地方要用容量較大的電容,但并非容量越大越好,首先,容量增大,成本和體積可能會上升,另外,電容越大充電電流就越大,充電時間也會越長。這些都是實際應用選型中要考慮的。 ">In the actual capacitor selection, on current change fast place to use large capacity capacitor, but not the bigger the better, first of all, to increase capacity, cost and volume may be on the rise, in addition, the greater the capacitor charging current is bigger, the charging time is longer. These are practical application should be considered in selection of. <P src="額定工作電壓:在規定的工作溫度范圍內,電容長期可靠地工作,它能承受的最大直流電壓。在交流電路中,要注意所加的交流電壓最大值不能超過電容的直流工作電壓值。常用的固定電容工作電壓有6.3V、10V、16V、25V、50V、63V、100V、250V、400V、500V、630V。電容在電路中實際要承受的電壓不能超過它的耐壓值。"" 額定工作電壓:在規定的工作溫度范圍內,電容長期可靠地工作,它能承受的最大直流電壓。在交流電路中,要注意所加的交流電壓最大值不能超過電容的直流工作電壓值。常用的固定電容工作電壓有6.3V、10V、16V、25V、50V、63V、100V、250V、400V、500V、630V。電容在電路中實際要承受的電壓不能超過它的耐壓值。 ">Rated voltage: in the specified operating temperature range, capacitive long-term reliable working, it can withstand the maximum DC voltage. In AC circuits, attention should be paid to the AC voltage maximum value cannot exceed Capacitor DC working voltage. The commonly used fixed capacitor voltage is6.3V,10V,16V,25V,50V,63V,100V,250V,400V,500V,630V. Capacitors in the circuit to be under the actual voltage does not exceed its withstand voltage. <P src="在濾波電路中,電容的耐壓值不要小于交流有效值的1.42倍。另外還要注意的一個問題是工作電壓裕量的問題,一般來說要在15%以上。"" 在濾波電路中,電容的耐壓值不要小于交流有效值的1.42倍。另外還要注意的一個問題是工作電壓裕量的問題,一般來說要在15%以上。 ">In the filter circuit, the capacitor voltage value of not less than1.42 times the effective value of AC. Also note a problem is working voltage margin problem, generally in more than 15%. <P src="讓電容器的額定電壓具有較多的余裕,能降低內阻、降低漏電流、降低損失角、增加壽命。雖然說,48V的工作電壓使用50V的鋁電解電容短時間不會出現問題,但使用久了,壽命就有可能降低。"" 讓電容器的額定電壓具有較多的余裕,能降低內阻、降低漏電流、降低損失角、增加壽命。雖然說,48V的工作電壓使用50V的鋁電解電容短時間不會出現問題,但使用久了,壽命就有可能降低。 ">Let the rated voltage of capacitor has more ample, can reduce the internal resistance, reduce the leakage current, reduce the loss angle, increased life span. Although the working voltage,48V use of 50V aluminum electrolytic capacitor short time there is no problem, but to use for a long time, life will probably be reduced. <P src="介質損耗"" 介質損耗 ">Dielectric loss <P src="電容器在電場作用下消耗的能量,通常用損耗功率和電容器的無功功率之比,即損耗角的正切值表示(在電容器的等效電路中,串聯等效電阻ESR同容抗1/ωC之比稱之為Tanδ,這里的ESR是在120Hz下計算獲得的值。顯然,Tanδ隨著測量頻率的增加而變大,隨測量溫度的下降而增大)。損耗角越大,電容器的損耗越大,損耗角大的電容不適于高頻情況下工作。散逸因數dissipationfactor(DF)存在於所有電容器中,有時DF值會以損失角tanδ表示。此參數愈低愈好。但鋁電解電容此參數比較高。"" 電容器在電場作用下消耗的能量,通常用損耗功率和電容器的無功功率之比,即損耗角的正切值表示(在電容器的等效電路中,串聯等效電阻ESR同容抗1/ωC之比稱之為Tanδ,這里的ESR是在120Hz下計算獲得的值。顯然,Tanδ隨著測量頻率的增加而變大,隨測量溫度的下降而增大)。損耗角越大,電容器的損耗越大,損耗角大的電容不適于高頻情況下工作。散逸因數dissipationfactor(DF)存在於所有電容器中,有時DF值會以損失角tanδ表示。此參數愈低愈好。但鋁電解電容此參數比較高。 ">The capacitor in the electric field 's energy consumption, usually with power loss and capacitor reactive power ratio, namely loss angle tangent value representation ( in capacitor equivalent circuit, equivalent series resistance ESR and capacitance1/ω C is called Tan δ, where ESR is the 120Hz calculated value. Apparently, Tan δwith the frequency increased, with the measurement of the temperature decreased with increasing ). Loss angle is bigger, the loss of the capacitor is bigger, loss angle large capacitors are not suitable for high frequency case work. Dissipation factor dissipationfactor ( DF ) exists in all capacitors, sometimes DF will loss Tan δsaid. This parameter is the smaller the better. Aluminum electrolytic capacitor this parameter is relatively high. <P src="DF值是高還是低,就同一品牌、同一系列的電容器來說,與溫度、容量、電壓、頻率……都有關系;當容量相同時,耐壓愈高的DF值就愈低。此外溫度愈高DF值愈高,頻率愈高DF值也會愈高。"" DF值是高還是低,就同一品牌、同一系列的電容器來說,與溫度、容量、電壓、頻率……都有關系;當容量相同時,耐壓愈高的DF值就愈低。此外溫度愈高DF值愈高,頻率愈高DF值也會愈高。 ">The DF value is high or low, the same brand, the same series of capacitors, and temperature, capacity, voltage, frequency ... ... Have a relationship; when the same capacity, voltage withstand higher DF value will be lower. In addition the temperature becomes high DF value is higher, the higher frequency of DF value can also be higher. <P src="外型尺寸"" 外型尺寸 ">Appearance size <P src="外型尺寸與重量及接腳型態相關。singleended是徑向引線式,screw是鎖螺絲式,另外還有貼片鋁電解電容等。至於重量,同容量同耐壓,但品牌不同的兩個電容做比較,重量一定不同;而外型尺寸更與外殼規劃有關。一般來說,直徑相同、容量相同的電容,高度低的可以代用高度大的電容,但是長度高的替代低的電容時就要考慮機構干涉問題。"" 外型尺寸與重量及接腳型態相關。singleended是徑向引線式,screw是鎖螺絲式,另外還有貼片鋁電解電容等。至於重量,同容量同耐壓,但品牌不同的兩個電容做比較,重量一定不同;而外型尺寸更與外殼規劃有關。一般來說,直徑相同、容量相同的電容,高度低的可以代用高度大的電容,但是長度高的替代低的電容時就要考慮機構干涉問題。 ">Size and weight and pin pattern correlation. Singleended is radial lead type, screw is a locking screw type, in addition to SMD aluminum electrolytic capacitor. As for weight, the same capacity with the pressure, but the brand is different for the two capacitor is compared, weight of different dimensions; and more and housing planning. In general, the diameter of the same, the same capacity capacitance, low height can substitute high capacitance, but length high alternative low capacitance when we consider the mechanism interfere problem. <P src="ESR"" ESR ">ESR <P src="一只電容器會因其構造而產生各種阻抗、感抗。"" 一只電容器會因其構造而產生各種阻抗、感抗。">A capacitor due to its structure and produce all sorts of impedance, reactance. <P src="ESR等效串聯電阻及ESL等效串聯電感是一對重要參數─這就是容抗的基礎。一個等效串聯電阻(ESR)很小的電容相對較大容量的外部電容能很好地吸收快速轉換時的峰值(紋波)電流。用ESR大的電容并聯更具成本效益。然而,這需要在PCB面積、器件數目與成本之間尋求折衷。""ESR等效串聯電阻及ESL等效串聯電感是一對重要參數─這就是容抗的基礎。一個等效串聯電阻(ESR)很小的電容相對較大容量的外部電容能很好地吸收快速轉換時的峰值(紋波)電流。用ESR大的電容并聯更具成本效益。然而,這需要在PCB面積、器件數目與成本之間尋求折衷。 ">ESR ESL equivalent series resistance and equivalent series inductance is one of the most important parameters are the capacitive reactance of the foundation. An equivalent series resistance ( ESR ) is a very small capacitor relative to the larger capacity of the external capacitor can well absorb the rapid conversion of the peak current ( ripple). Using ESR large capacitance parallel connection is more cost-effective. However, this need in the PCB area, the number and cost to find a compromise between devices. <P src="紋波電流和紋波電壓"" 紋波電流和紋波電壓 ">Ripple current and ripple voltage <P src="也稱作漣波電流和漣波電壓,其實就是ripplecurrent,ripplevoltage。含義就是電容器所能耐受紋波電流/電壓值。紋波電壓等于紋波電流與ESR的乘積。"" 也稱作漣波電流和漣波電壓,其實就是ripplecurrent,ripplevoltage。含義就是電容器所能耐受紋波電流/電壓值。紋波電壓等于紋波電流與ESR的乘積。 ">Also known as the ripple current and ripple voltage, is actually ripplecurrent, ripplevoltage. Meaning is the capacitor can tolerance to ripple current / voltage value. Ripple voltage is equal to the product of the ripple current and ESR. <P src="當紋波電流增大的時候,即使在ESR保持不變的情況下,紋波電壓也會成倍提高。換言之,當紋波電壓增大時,紋波電流也隨之增大,這也是要求電容具備更低ESR值的原因。疊加入紋波電流后,由于電容內部的等效串連電阻(ESR)引起發熱,從而影響到電容器的使用壽命。一般的,紋波電流與頻率成正比,因此低頻時紋波電流也比較低。"" 當紋波電流增大的時候,即使在ESR保持不變的情況下,紋波電壓也會成倍提高。換言之,當紋波電壓增大時,紋波電流也隨之增大,這也是要求電容具備更低ESR值的原因。疊加入紋波電流后,由于電容內部的等效串連電阻(ESR)引起發熱,從而影響到電容器的使用壽命。一般的,紋波電流與頻率成正比,因此低頻時紋波電流也比較低。 ">When the ripple current increases when, even in the ESR remain unchanged, ripple voltage will increase. In other words, when the ripple voltage is increased, the ripple current also increases, which is also the requirement with lower capacitor ESR causes. Stack joined the ripple current, equivalent series resistance due to internal capacitances ( ESR ) induced fever, which affects the service life of the capacitor. In general, the ripple current is proportional to frequency, so the low frequency ripple current is relatively low. <P src="額定紋波電流是在最高工作溫度條件下定義的數值。而實際應用中電容的紋波承受度還跟其使用環境溫度及電容自身溫度等級有關。規格書目通常會提供一個在特定溫度條件下各溫度等級電容所能夠承受的最大紋波電流。甚至提供一個詳細圖表以幫助使用者迅速查找到在一定環境溫度條件下要達到某期望使用壽命所允許的電容紋波量。"" 額定紋波電流是在最高工作溫度條件下定義的數值。而實際應用中電容的紋波承受度還跟其使用環境溫度及電容自身溫度等級有關。規格書目通常會提供一個在特定溫度條件下各溫度等級電容所能夠承受的最大紋波電流。甚至提供一個詳細圖表以幫助使用者迅速查找到在一定環境溫度條件下要達到某期望使用壽命所允許的電容紋波量。 ">Rated ripple current at maximum operating temperature under defined conditions in numerical. But in the practical application of capacitor ripple tolerance but also with the use of environmental temperature and capacitance temperature grade. Specifications of bibliography will usually provide a specific temperature under different conditions of temperature grade capacitors can withstand the maximum ripple current. Even provide a detailed chart to help users find quickly at a certain temperature to achieve a desired service life allowed by the capacitor ripple content. <P src="漏電流"" 漏電流 ">Leakage current <P src="電容器的介質對直流電流具有很大的阻礙作用。然而,由于鋁氧化膜介質上浸有電解液,在施加電壓時,重新形成的以及修復氧化膜的時候會產生一種很小的稱之為漏電流的電流。通常,漏電流會隨著溫度和電壓的升高而增大。它的計算公式大致是:I=K×CV。漏電流I的單位是μA,K是常數。一般來說,電容器容量愈高,漏電流就愈大。從公式可得知額定電壓愈高,漏電流也愈大,因此降低工作電壓亦可降低漏電流。"" 電容器的介質對直流電流具有很大的阻礙作用。然而,由于鋁氧化膜介質上浸有電解液,在施加電壓時,重新形成的以及修復氧化膜的時候會產生一種很小的稱之為漏電流的電流。通常,漏電流會隨著溫度和電壓的升高而增大。它的計算公式大致是:I=K×CV。漏電流I的單位是μA,K是常數。一般來說,電容器容量愈高,漏電流就愈大。從公式可得知額定電壓愈高,漏電流也愈大,因此降低工作電壓亦可降低漏電流。 ">Capacitor dielectric for direct current has a significant impact. However, due to aluminum oxide film medium impregnated with the electrolyte, when a voltage is applied to the repair of oxide film formation, and when can produce a very small called leakage current. Usually, the leakage current with temperature and voltage increase. Its formula is roughly: I = K ×CV. The leakage current of the unit is Iμ A, K is a constant. Generally speaking, the higher the capacity of condenser, leakage current is big. From the formula that the higher rated voltage, leakage current increases, thus reducing working voltage can reduce the leakage current. <P src="壽命"" 壽命 ">Life <P src="首先要明確一點,鋁電解電容一定會壞,只是時間問題。影響電容壽命的原因有很多,過電壓,逆電壓,高溫,急速充放電等等,正常使用的情況下,最大的影響就是溫度,因為溫度越高電解液的揮發損耗越快。需要注意的是這里的溫度不是指環境或表面溫度,是指鋁箔工作溫度。廠商通常會將電容壽命和測試溫度標注在電容本體。"" 首先要明確一點,鋁電解電容一定會壞,只是時間問題。影響電容壽命的原因有很多,過電壓,逆電壓,高溫,急速充放電等等,正常使用的情況下,最大的影響就是溫度,因為溫度越高電解液的揮發損耗越快。需要注意的是這里的溫度不是指環境或表面溫度,是指鋁箔工作溫度。廠商通常會將電容壽命和測試溫度標注在電容本體。 ">Remember first, aluminum electrolytic capacitors must be bad, just a matter of time. Effect of capacitor life for many reasons, overvoltage, reverse voltage, high temperature, rapid charge and discharge and so on, to use normal circumstances, the biggest impact is temperature, because the higher the temperature the volatilization of the electrolyte loss more quickly. Note that the temperature here does not refer to the environment or surface temperature, refers to the aluminum foil working temperature. The manufacturer will usually capacitor life and test temperature marked in the capacitor body. <P src="因電容的工作溫度每增高10℃壽命減半,所以不要以為2000小時壽命的鋁電解電容就比1000小時的好,要注意確認壽命的測試溫度。每個廠商都有溫度和壽命的計算公式,在設計電容時要參照實際數據進行計算。需要了解的是要提高鋁電解電容的壽命,第一要降低工作溫度,在PCB上遠離熱源,第二考慮使用最高工作溫度高的電容,當然價格也會高一些。"" 因電容的工作溫度每增高10℃壽命減半,所以不要以為2000小時壽命的鋁電解電容就比1000小時的好,要注意確認壽命的測試溫度。每個廠商都有溫度和壽命的計算公式,在設計電容時要參照實際數據進行計算。需要了解的是要提高鋁電解電容的壽命,第一要降低工作溫度,在PCB上遠離熱源,第二考慮使用最高工作溫度高的電容,當然價格也會高一些。 ">Because the capacitance temperature increased 10each half life, so don't think2000 hours life of aluminum electrolytic capacitors than1000 hours good, attention should be paid to confirm the lifetime test temperatures. Each manufacturer has temperature and life calculation formula, in the design of capacitance to refer to the actual data. Need to know is to increase the life of aluminum electrolytic capacitor, first to reduce the working temperature, the PCB away from sources of heat, second consider the use of the highest working temperature high capacitance, of course the price will be higher. <P src="阻抗"" 阻抗 ">Impedance <P src="在特定的頻率下,阻礙交流電流通過的電阻即為所謂的阻抗。它與電容等效電路中的電容值、電感值密切相關,且與ESR也有關系。電容的容抗在低頻率范圍內隨著頻率的增加逐步減小,頻率繼續增加達到中頻范圍時電抗降至ESR的值。當頻率達到高頻范圍時感抗變為主導,所以阻抗是隨著頻率的增加而增加。"" 在特定的頻率下,阻礙交流電流通過的電阻即為所謂的阻抗。它與電容等效電路中的電容值、電感值密切相關,且與ESR也有關系。電容的容抗在低頻率范圍內隨著頻率的增加逐步減小,頻率繼續增加達到中頻范圍時電抗降至ESR的值。當頻率達到高頻范圍時感抗變為主導,所以阻抗是隨著頻率的增加而增加。 ">At a particular frequency, hinder the AC current by resistance is called impedance. It and the capacitance in the equivalent circuit of capacitance, inductance value is closely related to, and with the ESR also has a relationship. The capacitance of the capacitive reactance in the low-frequency range as the frequency increases gradually reduced, continues to increase at intermediate frequency range frequency reactance to the value of ESR. When the frequency of high frequency range when the inductive reactance becomes dominant, so the impedance is increased with increasing frequency. <P src="開關電源中的輸出濾波電解電容器,其鋸齒波電壓頻率高達數十kHz,甚至是數十MHz,這時電容量并不是其主要指標,衡量高頻鋁電解電容優劣的標準是“阻抗-頻率”特性,要求在開關電源的工作頻率內要有較低的等效阻抗,同時對于半導體器件工作時產生的高頻尖峰信號具有良好的濾波作用。"" 開關電源中的輸出濾波電解電容器,其鋸齒波電壓頻率高達數十kHz,甚至是數十MHz,這時電容量并不是其主要指標,衡量高頻鋁電解電容優劣的標準是“阻抗-頻率”特性,要求在開關電源的工作頻率內要有較低的等效阻抗,同時對于半導體器件工作時產生的高頻尖峰信號具有良好的濾波作用。">The switching power supply output filtering electrolytic capacitor, the sawtooth wave voltage frequency up to several tens of kHz, or even tens of MHz, when the capacity is not the primary indicator, gauge high aluminum electrolytic capacitor is the standard of bad of actor" impedance" characteristics, requirements of the switching power supply frequency to have lower equivalent impedance, the semiconductor device can generate high frequency spike signal has good filtering effect.
 
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